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Victims are forced to undertake manual labour tasks that include farm work, fruit and vegetable picking, construction, mining, work in the hospitality sector and factory work such as in the textiles, manufacturing and packaging industries.
The movement of people for the purpose of forced labour and services usually involves an agent or recruiter, a transporter, and a final employer, who will derive a profit from the exploitation of the trafficked person. In some cases, the same person carries out all these trafficking activities. With increased possibilities for travelling and telecommunications, and with a growing demand for cheap labour in the developed world on the one hand, and increasingly restrictive visa regulations on the other, possible channels for legal labour migration have diminished. Private recruitment agencies, intermediaries and employers may take advantage of this situation and lure potential migrants into exploitative employment.
Not only is the journey hazardous for the victims, but upon reaching their destination they are subject to low paying menial work which is often degrading and work that they have to undertake in conditions close to slavery and bondage.